Miller Research was commissioned by the Welsh Government to carry out a rapid evidence assessment of fifteen existing studies to explore the issues encountered by parents who work atypical hours or need additional support for children with disabilities in relation to their childcare provision. This involved identifying and providing a detailed description of the main types of parents / carers who work atypical hours and examining and reporting on the barriers that prevent such parents the provision of childcare. It was found that parents who work atypical hours are not a homogeneous group and that the provision of formal childcare was insufficient due to a number of policy related and economic factors.